Standard Progressive Matrices
Purpose: It is designed to measure a person’s ability to form perceptual relationships and reasoning through analogies.
Population: Ages 6 to adult.
Score: Percentile ranks.
Time: (45) minutes.
Author: Dr. John C. Raven.
Publisher: U.S. Distributor: The Psychological Corporation.
Description: These are the original forms of the matrix, first published in 1938. This booklet includes five groups (A to E) with 12 items in each group (for example, A1 to A12). One group of items becomes each more and more difficult, requiring more and more cognitive ability to encode and analyze information. All items are shown in black ink on a white background. The Standard Progressive Matrix (SPM) aims to measure a person’s ability to form perceptual relationships and reasoning through analogies independent of language and formal education, and can be used for people from 6 to adults. It is the first method used among the three instruments called Raven’s Progressive Matrix. The other two are the Colored Progressive Matrix (CPM) and the Advanced Progressive Matrix (APM). All three tests are Spearman g measures.
Scoring: SPM consists of 60 items, divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E), with 12 items in each group. Each project contains a graphic with missing parts. Below the diagram are six (groups A and B) or eight (groups C to E) alternatives to complete the diagram, of which only one is correct. Each collection contains different principles or “themes” for obtaining the missing parts, and in the collection, the items are roughly arranged in order of increasing difficulty. Usually, the raw scores are converted to percentile ranks by using appropriate specifications.
Reliability: An internal consistency study using the halving method or KR20 estimation with correction for length yielded a value between 0.60 and 0.98, with a median of 0.90. The retest correlation ranges from a low of 0.46 in an 11-year interval to a high of 0.97 in a two-day interval. The median value of the retest is about 0.82. A coefficient close to this median value has been obtained in a time interval of one week to a few weeks, while a longer time interval is associated with a smaller value. Raven provides test-retest coefficients for multiple age groups: .88 (over 13 years old), .93 (under 30 years old), .88 (30-39 years old), .87 (40-49 years old), .83 (50 Years old and above).
Effectiveness: Spearman believes that SPM is the best measure of g. When evaluated by the factor analysis method originally used to define g, SPM can measure it almost as expected. Most studies that analyze the factors of SPM and other Western cultural cognitive measures show that the load of general factors is higher than 0.75. The concurrency coefficients between SPM and Stanford-Binet and Weschler scales are between .54 and .88, and most of them are between .70s and .80s.
Norms: The norm groups included in the manual are: British children from 6 to 16 years old; Irish children from 6 to 12 years old; military and civilian subjects between 20 to 65 years old. Supplementary content includes specifications from Canada, the United States, and Germany.
Suggested uses: Suggested uses include measuring a person’s ability to form perceptual relationships and reasoning through analogies in the research environment.
- Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, J.H. (2003). Manual for Raven’s Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales. Section 1: General Overview. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.
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